Enterprise Recon 2.0.30

Databases

This section covers the following topics:

Supported Databases

  • IBM DB2 11.1 and above.
  • IBM Informix 12.10.
  • MariaDB.
  • Microsoft SQL 2005 and above.
  • MySQL.
  • Oracle Database 9 and above.
  • PostgreSQL 9.5 and above.
  • Sybase/SAP Adaptive Server Enterprise 15.7 and above.
  • Teradata 14.10.00.02 and above.
  • Tibero 6.
Using a different database version?

Ground Labs supports and tests the databases listed above. However, database versions not indicated may still work as expected.

For databases where no specific version is specified, Ground Labs support is limited to versions the associated vendor still provides active support, maintenance and software patches for.

Requirements

Component Description
Proxy Agent

Windows Agent with database runtime components

The Windows Agent with Database Runtime Components can scan all supported databases and is recommended for scanning IBM DB2 and Oracle Databases.

Windows Agents (without database runtime components) and Linux Agents

To use Windows Agents (without database runtime components) and Linux Agents to scan databases, make sure the ODBC drivers for the Target database are installed on the Agent host.

Database Credentials

Your database credentials must have the minimum required privileges to access the databases, schemas, or tables to be scanned.

Example: To scan a MySQL database, use credentials that have SELECT (data reader) permissions.

Recommended Least Privilege User Approach

To reduce the risk of data loss or privileged account abuse, the Target credentials provided for the intended Target should only be granted read-only access to the exact resources and data that require scanning. Never grant full user access privileges or unrestricted data access to any application if it is not required.

DBMS Connection Details

The following section describes the supported database management systems (DBMS) and the settings required for ER2 to connect to and scan them.

IBM DB2

Settings Description
Default Port

50000

If connection to the database uses a port other than 50000, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components
Path Syntax
  • Specific database: <database[:<port>]>
    Example: GLDB:9999
  • Specific schema: <database[:<port>]/schema>
    Example: GLDB:9999/HRAdmin
  • Specific table: <database[:<port>]/schema/table>
    Example: GLDB/HRAdmin/Employees

IBM Informix

Settings Description
Default Port

9088

If connection to the database uses a port other than 9088, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components (ER2 2.0.26 and above)
  • Windows Agent (ER2 2.0.26 and above)
Licensing IBM Informix Targets are licensed by data allowance. See Licensing for more information.
Proprietary Client

You must have an IBM Informix client installed on the Agent host. Make sure that the client has been configured to connect to the target Informix database instance by running "setnet32.exe". For more information on "setnet32.exe", see IBM: Setting up the SQLHOSTS registry key with Setnet32 (Windows).

The following IBM Informix clients are supported:

  • IBM Informix Connect (IConnect) 4.10
  • IBM Informix Client SDK (CSDK) 4.10

Both clients are included in the IBM Informix Software Bundle installer.

Path Syntax
  • Specific database: <instance/database[:<port>]>
    Example: ol_informix1210:9999/stores_demo
  • Specific schema: <instance/database[:<port>]/schema>
    Example: ol_informix1210/stores_demo/userA
  • Specific table: <instance/database[:<port>]/schema/table>
    Example: ol_informix1210/stores_demo/userA/customers

MariaDB

Settings Description
Default Port

3306

If connection to the database uses a port other than 3306, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components
  • Windows Agent
  • Linux Agent
Path Syntax

  • All locations: [:<port>]
    Example: Leave the Path blank, or :9999
  • Specific database: <database[:<port>]>
    Example: hr:9999
  • Specific table: <database[:<port>]/table>
    Example: hr/employees

Pagination is enabled by default when scanning MariaDB databases. To disable pagination, set the option (paged=false).

  • All locations: (paged=false)[:<port>]
    Example: (paged=false)
  • Specific database: <database(paged=false)[:<port>]>
    Example: hr(paged=false):9999

In MariaDB, a "database" may also be referred to as a "schema".

Microsoft SQL Server

Settings Description
Default Port

1433

If connection to the database uses a port other than 1433, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components
Path Syntax

  • All locations: [:<port>]
    Example: Leave the Path blank, or :9999
  • Specific database: <database[:<port>]>
    Example: GLDB:9999
  • Specific schema: <database[:<port>]/schema>
    Example: GLDB:9999/HRAdmin
  • Specific table: <database[:<port>]/schema/table>
    Example: GLDB:9999/HRAdmin/Employees
  • Scan a specific SQL Server instance (where multiple are running): <database(instance=<instance_name>)[:<port>][/schema][/table]>
    Example: GLDB(instance=MsSQLInst2):9999/HrAdmin/Employees

In Microsoft SQL Server, a "database" may also be referred to as a "catalog".

MySQL

Settings Description
Default Port

3306

If connection to the database uses a port other than 3306, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components
  • Windows Agent
  • Linux Agent
Path Syntax

  • All locations: [:<port>]
    Example: Leave the Path blank, or :9999
  • Specific database: <database[:<port>]>
    Example: hr:9999
  • Specific table: <database[:<port>]/table>
    Example: hr/employees

Pagination is enabled by default when scanning MySQL databases. To disable pagination, set the option (paged=false).

  • All locations: (paged=false)[:<port>]
    Example: (paged=false)
  • Specific database: <database(paged=false)[:<port>]>
    Example: hr(paged=false):9999

In MySQL, a "database" may also be referred to as a "schema".

Oracle Database

Settings Description
Default Port

1521

If connection to the database uses a port other than 1521, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components
Path Syntax
  • All locations: [:<port>]
    Example: Leave the Path blank, or :9999
  • Specific schema: <schema[:<port>]>
    Example: hr:9999
  • Specific table: <schema[:<port>]/table>
    Example: hr/employees

Connect using a fully qualified domain name (FQDN)

When adding an Oracle Database as a Target location, you may need to enter the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the database server instead of its host name.

Oracle 12x/TNS: protocol adapter error

If you are using Oracle 12x, or if the Oracle database displays a “TNS: protocol adapter error”, you must specify a SERVICE_NAME

  • Scan a specific schema or table using service name: <schema(SERVICE_NAME=<ServiceName>)[:port]/table
    Example: hr(SERVICE_NAME=GLDB)/employees

PostgreSQL

Settings Description
Default Port

5432

If connection to the database uses a port other than 5432, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components
  • Windows Agent
  • Linux Agent
Path Syntax
  • Specific database: <database[:<port>]>
    Example: gldb:9999
  • Specific schema: <database[:<port>]/schema>
    Example: gldb:9999/hr
  • Specific table: <database[:<port>]/schema/table>
    Example: gldb/hr/employees
PostgreSQL by default blocks remote connections to the PostgreSQL server. To configure the PostgreSQL to allow remote connections, see Allow Remote Connections to PostgreSQL Server.

Sybase / SAP ASE

Settings Description
Default Port

3638

If connection to the database uses a port other than 3638, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components
  • Windows Agent
  • Linux Agent
Proprietary Client

You must set up the data source to connect to Sybase/SAP ASE proprietary database software.

On the Proxy Agent machine, install a Sysbase/ASE client to provide the ODBC drivers that ER2 can use to connect to the database.

Examples of Sybase/ASE clients:

  • ASE Express Edition
  • ASE Developer's Edition

Path Syntax
  • Specific database: <database[:<port>]>
    Example: GLDB:9999
  • Specific schema: <database[:<port>]/schema>
    Example: GLDB:9999/HRAdmin
  • Specific table: <database[:<port>]/schema/table>
    Example: GLDB/HRAdmin/Employees
  • Scan a specific Sybase instance (where multiple are running): <database(instance=<instance_name>)[:<port>][/schema][/table]>
    Example: GLDB(instance=Inst2):9999/HrAdmin/Employees
In Sybase ASE, a "database" may also be referred to as a "catalog".

Teradata

Settings Description
Default Port

1025

If connection to the database uses a port other than 1025, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components
  • Windows Agent
Licensing Teradata Targets are licensed by data allowance. See Licensing for more information.
Proprietary Client

Requires Teradata Tools and Utilities 16.10.xx. Install the Teradata Tools and Utilities on the Agent host.

You may need to restart the Agent host after installing Teradata Tools and Utilities.
Path Syntax
  • (Not recommended) Scan all locations: [:<port>]
    Example: Leave the Path blank, or :9999
  • Specific user: <user_name[:<port>]>
    Example: userA:9999
  • Specific table belonging to user: <user_name[:<port>]/table>
    Example: userA:9999/accounts
  • Specific database: <database[:<port>]>
    Example: hr
  • Specific table: <database[:<port>]/table>
    Example: hr/employees
Others Teradata scans may create temporary tables in the default database. See Teradata FastExport Utility Temporary Tables erecon_fexp_* for more information.

Tibero

Settings Description
Default Port

8629

If connection to the database uses a port other than 8629, the [:<port>] value must be defined in the Path field.

Recommended Proxy Agents
  • Windows Agent with database runtime components (ER2 2.0.24 and above)
If the Agent host has Tibero 6 ODBC drivers installed, the Agent will use those drivers instead of its built-in database runtime components.
Licensing Tibero Targets are licensed by data allowance. See Licensing for more information.
Path Syntax
  • Specific database: <database[:<port>]>
    Example: GLDB:9999
  • Specific schema: <database[:<port>]/schema>
    Example: GLDB:9999/HRAdmin
  • Specific table: <database[:<port>]/schema/table>
    Example: GLDB/HrAdmin/Employees

You can specify the encoding used by the Target database with the (encoding=<character_set>) option. If not specified, the default MSWIN949 character set will be used.

You can specify the following values for <character_set>:

  • MSWIN949 (default)
  • UTF-8
  • UTF-16

To specify the encoding that the Target database is using, use the following syntax:

  • Specific database: <database(encoding=<character_set>)[:<port>]>
    Example: GLDB(encoding=UTF-8):9999
  • Specific schema: <database(encoding=<character_set>)[:<port>]/schema>
    Example: GLDB(encoding=UTF-8)/HRAdmin
  • Specific table: <database(encoding=<character_set>)[:<port>]/schema/table>
    Example: GLDB(encoding=UTF-8)/HRAdmin/Employees

Others Tibero scans currently have a few limitations. See Tibero Scan Limitations for more information.

Add a Database Target Location

  1. From the New Search page, Add Targets.
  2. In the Enter New Target Hostname field, enter the host name of your database server.
  3. Click Test. If ER2 can connect to the Target, the button changes to a Commit button.
  4. In the Select Types dialog box, click on Database.
  5. In Database, select the DBMS type running on your database server. Click Done.
  6. In the next window, enter the database connection settings. Fill in the following fields: er2-add-database.png

    Field Description
    Path Enter path details of the database.
    See DBMS Connection Details for information on the Path syntax to use.
    Credential Details

    If you have stored the credentials, select from Stored Credentials. If not, enter:

    • Credential Label: Enter a descriptive label for the credential set.
    • Username: User name for the database.
    • Password: Password for the database.

    Windows Authentication for Microsoft SQL

    From ER2 2.0.21, Windows authentication is supported for Microsoft SQL 2008 and above.

    To use Windows authentication, enter your Windows account credentials:

    • Username: Windows domain and username in the <domain_name\user_name> format.
    • Password: Windows password.

    For more information on Windows or SQL Server authentication modes, see Choose an Authentication Mode.

    Proxy Details Select an Agent.
    See DBMS Connection Details for database-specific Agent requirements.
    For optimal performance, use an Agent installed on the database server.
  7. Click Test. If ER2 can connect to the Target, the button changes to a Commit button.
  8. Click Commit to add the Target.

Remediating Databases

Direct remediation is not supported for database Targets. This means that you cannot perform these remedial actions:

  • Mask all sensitive data.
  • Quarantine.
  • Delete permanently.
  • Encrypt file.

However, you can mark locations in the scan results of your database location for further action. For details, see Remediation.

Scanning the Data Store

Instead of running a live database scan, you can run a scan on data store files. This is done by running a Local Storage and Local Memory Target location scan on the data files themselves.

This is not recommended, as:

  • Data store files are locked during the normal operation of a live database. Unlocking the data files requires the database to be taken offline.
  • Scanning data store files will match ghost records, and may include data that has already been removed from the live database.
  • Encrypted data files are not scanned as they are considered secure — but you may still want to scan the live database itself for sensitive data.

Tibero Scan Limitations

In a Target Tibero database, tables and columns with case-sensitive names will be skipped during the scan. For example, if a table in the Target Tibero database is named "TABLE_ONE", it will be scanned. If a table in the Target Tibero database is named "table_One", it will be skipped during the scan.

Teradata FastExport Utility Temporary Tables erecon_fexp_*

A Teradata scan may create temporary tables that are named erecon_fexp_<YYYYMMDDHHMMSS><PID><RANDOM>. Do not remove these tables while the scan is in progress.

These temporary tables are created by the Teradata FastExport utility to temporarily store FastExport metadata. The utility extracts data from the Target database and stores it in memory, where the scanning engine reads and scans it. No data from the database is written to disk by the scanning engine.

The temporary tables are automatically removed when a scan completes. If a scan fails or is interrupted by an error, the temporary tables may remain in the database. In this case, it is safe to delete the temporary tables.

Allow Remote Connections to PostgreSQL Server

PostgreSQL by default blocks all connections that are not from the PostgreSQL database server itself. This means that to scan a PostgreSQL database, the Agent must either be installed on the PostgreSQL database server itself (not recommended), or the PostgreSQL server must be configured to allow remote connections.

To configure a PostgreSQL server to allow remote connections:

  1. On the PostgreSQL database server, locate the pg_hba.conf configuration file. On a Unix-based server, the file is usually found in the /var/lib/postgresql/data directory.
  2. As root, open pg_hba.conf in a text editor.
  3. Add the following to the end of the file:

    # Syntax: # host <database_name> <postgresql_user_name> <agent_host_address> <auth-method> host all all all md5

  4. Save the file and restart the PostgreSQL service.